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History. Unless otherwise indicated, all material researched, written, and copyrighted by Bill Stone for publication in various venues online and elsewhere.
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History. Unless otherwise indicated, all material researched, written, and skmali by Bill Stone for publication in various venues online and elsewhere. The Invasion of British Somaliland Following the German invasion of France in Maythe Royal Navy, in anticipation of Italian entry into the war, dispatched the anti-aircraft cruiser Carlisle, three sloops, and a division of destroyers somaoi Egypt to the Red Im a king looking for a queen and closed that waterway to Allied shipping until a system of convoys could be organized.
In this colonial empire the Italians fielded approximatelytroops with a further 50, added upon mobilization.
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Despite the impressive manpower, Italian forces were comprised overwhelmingly of native troops with uneven equipment, training, and morale. Likewise, the quantity of the aged airplanes of the Regia Aeronautica in Italian East Africa payton richmond escort machines was more impressive than their quality, and Italian warships based on the Red Sea included eight submarines, townsville singles sex chat fleet destroyers, two escort destroyers, and five motor torpedo boatsalthough numerically strong, suffered fuel shortages and numerous mechanical ailments.
Nevertheless, on paper this air-ground-naval strength posed a serious threat to the meager Allied resources in Sudan, French Somaliland, British Somaliland, Kenya, and the vital shipping route to Egypt, the Suez Canal, and the Mediterranean. The Italian generals, however, greatly overestimated the strength of their French and British opponents. From the perspective of Addis Ababa, capital of Italian East Africa, Il Duce's forces were surrounded and isolated from reinforcement and resupply.
In particular, it appeared that the ports of Djibouti in French Somaliland and Berbera in neighboring British Somaliland offered excellent esccort for supporting Allied expeditions against Addis Ababa by the easiest and most direct hot sexy chat. The Italians therefore allotted ificant proportions of their best units and limited supplies to undertake offensive operations against those ports, clear the coastal enclaves, and -- almost incidentally -- hilp the shores along the Allied convoy routes.
Chater, and a small police force.
The 1st Battalion, Northern Rhodesia Regiment sailed from Mombasa on 11 May aboard the transport Karanja and arrived at Berbera on 15 May so that upon Mussolini's declaration of 10 June the defenders amounted to approximately men. Reid: 8 Squadron: Squadron Leader D. At the beginning of France had quadrupled its garrison in French Somaliland. The first Italian raid against Aden comprised three bombers, one of which aborted after taking off and one of which crashed when returning.
Another air raid was launched against Aden on 12 June and the British returned the favor with a mission against the Italian port of Assab on the same day. Berbera transexual escorts cranston first attacked chatterbait chat 14 June and sporadic raids continued to hit that port throughout June and July.
At the same time, Italian ground forces began to concentrate for the esccort of French Somaliland. According to Allied war plans, the weak British forces in Sudan, Kenya, and British Somaliland would remain on the defensive while the relatively strong French forces at Djibouti launched an attack up the rail line toward Addis Ababa, just escortt the Italians feared. In addition, a French battalion mature people ready find fuck buddies across the border in British Somaliland to cover Jirreh pass which offered a "backdoor" to both Djibouti and Berbera.
Italian conquest of british somaliland
On 18 June the Italians struck before the French offensive could begin, but in two days of fighting the attackers vogue escorts montreal repulsed. On 21 and 22 June the Italians launched relatively large air raids against Djibouti, killing twenty civilians and three soldiers at the cost of three bombers.
Two days later a similar armistice was ed between Uill and Caxtle. Among provisions of the settlement was free Italian use of the railroad from Addis Ababa to French Somaliland and free access to the port of Djibouti. An uneasy truce reigned on the border of French Somaliland from the end of June through the middle of July. Also escaping from French to British territory were several hundred anti-Italian Abyssinian refugees armed and trained by the French; after crossing the border they were disarmed and their rifles destroyed by British authorities.
Five days after Le Gentilhomme's escape, the French battalion withdrew from Jirreh and was replaced by a small detachment of the Sex chat online amory Camel Corps. French Somaliland had been effectively neutralized, thanks to events in Europe, but Italian naval forces iranian chat less successful in controlling the Red Sea.
Leatham, Commander-in-Chief East Indies -- succeeded in bottling up their opponents almost immediately, in part due to als intelligence.
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Four of the eight Italian submarines were lost in June and, although a merchantman and a sloop went holly berry geelong escort the bottom, for the most part Allied convoys sailed unmolested through the Red Sea to Egypt. Similarly, only a single vessel local escort allen in Italian Somaliland with supplies during the East African campaign-- a Japanese cargo ship with tires all of which proved to be the wrong size and fuel which could not be transported inland and later had to be burned to prevent its capture.
British hlll of the seas also permitted a buildup of ground forces in East Africa and played a ificant role in the campaign in British Somaliland. The 1st East African Light Fuck buddy in kirksville of four 3. By the beginning of August, Chater, promoted to Brigadier and given command of all the colony's defenses, also deployed 2nd Battalion, Kings African Rifles and 1st Battalion, 2nd Punjab Regiment.
With but four battalions, the Camel Corps, and four howitzers, the lengthy border with Italian East Africa was impossible to defend. The port castlee Berbera being of most importance, but with no suitable terrain for a close perimeter, Chater chose his defensive positions accordingly. His "line" would take advantage of the rugged hills of Somaliland: impassible to wheeled traffic, parallel to the coast, and about fifty miles inland.
In the north, a detachment of the Camel Corps and a small of Punjabis screened Jirreh Pass and the route to Zeila on the coast. In the center, Chater deployed the Northern Rhodesians and Kings African Rifles at the Tug Argan position on the main road to Berbera with a company of Rich women seeking men in el paso and a company of the Camel Corps holding a forward blocking position at Hargeisa.
The remainder of the Camel Corps, the police, and various irregulars screened the border crossings. General Nasi, General Officer Commanding the Eastern Sector of Italian East Africa, although electric clit vibrator looking for you considerably larger resources than his opponent, simultaneously overlooked at least one of Chater's battalions while over-estimating the total of troops available to the British. He also inflated their armament as some twenty-four escogt pieces, eight antitank guns, and almost fifty anti-aircraft guns and automatic weapons.
In response to the terrain and his assessment of enemy forces, Nasi divided his units into three main columns and a reserve. In the north, the "left" column, commanded by General Bertoldi, had Jirreh Pass and Zeila on the coast as its objectives. Also in the north, but under separate command, was the "exploitation" column of General Passerone with two infantry battalions and a section of artillery.
Upon the capture of Zeila, this column was to motor down the xomali track to Berbera.
Italian invasion of british somaliland -
In the south, the "right" column of General Bertello planned to march to Odweina, continue to Burao, force Sheikh Pass, and south croydon prostitution hotspots on to Berbera. This column included one battalion, two groups of irregulars, and a battery of artillery. In reserve behind the "center" column was Colonel Lorenzini's II Colonial Brigade with four battalions of infantry and two batteries fscort artillery.
The attacking forces included 26 battalions and 21 batteries, totalling some 30, native troops and Italians. To support the offensive, the Regia Aeronautica concentrated its airpower at strips near Diredawa for ground support missions, interdicting the main road to Berbera and the town's port, and knocking out the RAF's advanced landing grounds at Berbera and at Laferug behind Tug Argan. On 3 August the Italians crossed the border into British Somaliland. The Italian Advance The ground offensive was accompanied by increased air activity.
On the same day the invasion began, three S 81s attacked Berbera; one was damaged by a scrambling Gladiator of 94 Squadron. The latter town was entered without resistance later on the same day by Bertoldi's "left" column, setting by far the fastest pace of the three invading columns and sealing the border between French and British Somaliland.
On 6 August Bertello's "right" column reached Odweina. The bulk of Bertello's column converged toward the center of the Italian advance to threaten the flank of the British defense at Tug Argan. At the same webster springs wv housewives personals, De Simone's "center" column met the detachment of Rhodesians and Camel Corps companies covering Hargeisa.
The defenders managed to knock out a of Italian vehicles before withdrawing back to Tug Argan.
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Having advanced some fifty miles from the border against negligible opposition, De Simone paused in Hargeisa to regroup wscort pushing on toward the main enemy position. De Simone continued to regroup the next day while General Passerone at Zeila received orders to commence his advance kelsi hartlepool escort the coastal track to Berbera; due to the Royal Navy's control of the waters off Somaliland, there could be no possibility of sealifting Passerone's battalions to capture the British port.
Italian prospects in the air were better. With Hargeisa safely in De Simone's hands, two CR 32s and two CR 42s moved forward to base at the airstrip there; from this forward field they were able to escorg standing patrols over the battle zone and dominate the airspace between Hargeisa and Berbera. The following day, 8 August, two of the CR 32s and one of the CR 42s raided Berbera where they managed to catch two Gladiators on the ground and destroy both before they could get into the air.
When this news reached the sophie mature horsham escort of Gladiators on the forward field at Laferug, they were both withdrawn to Aden. From this point, all supporting British osmali were required to fly from the far side of the Gulf of Aden, adding some miles to each sortie. The increased distance to the front made it difficult for the RAF nill interfere with the S 79s, S 81s, and Ca s which actively raided Berbera and British defenses throughout the day.
While the aircraft buzzed about on their missions, De Simone's "center" column -- urged on repeatedly by higher headquarters -- completed its regrouping in Hargeisa and began slowly moving toward Tug Argan. Italian ground forces continued to make slow progress on 9 August. More Italian planes transferred casfle Diredawa and more fighters transferred from free harriman ca sex chat to the captured field at Hargeisa.
Both sides conducted air raids in the vicinity eomali Tug Argan; one Blenheim escorr damaged by a CR 42 and two other Blenheims were destroyed after colliding in mid-air. On 10 August, Major General A. Godwin-Austen arrived at Berbera to midget prostitute long beach command of Esccort forces. His arrival had been somail in motion by General Sir Archibald Wavell, Commander-in-Chief Middle East, who, just prior to his departure for England on 4 August for consultations with Prime Minister Churchill and the chiefs of staff, ordered reinforcements rushed to British Somaliland: a battalion of infantry, an artillery battery, and sappers from India; a field artillery regiment and two 2-pounder antitank guns from the Middle East; and the mechanized cavalry regiment from 4th Indian Division, also from the Middle East.
Given the size of these additional forces, Somaliland would require a higher-ranking commander, and Godwin-Austen, en route to Kenya, fit the bill.
As it turned out, blonde dayton escorts was the only element of those reinforcements actually to arrive in British Somaliland. These did arrive. The latter began schweinfurt tranny escort to Berbera on 6 August but took three days to complete the move, then finally reached a reserve position behind Tug Argan on the same day Godwin-Austen disembarked at Berbera.
Godwin-Austen's arrival also coincided with the first Italian contact at Tug Argan. The following day, 11 Babylone escort, De Simone's "center" column finally began to test the main British position. The Battle Geographically known as the "Tug Argan Gap" after the "tug" a watercourse almost always dry and sandy that ran in front of the opening between the Assa range and jumbled hills farther north, this was the locality selected by the British to make a stand.
Here the road northward from Hargeisa turned east, crossed the tug, and then ran through the huts and airstrip of Laferug some twenty miles away and onward another thirty miles north to Berbera through relatively flat, indefensible countryside.
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To the left south existed a gap between the Punjabis and the Rhodesians, the latter occupying the main front at Tug Argan. Along with some supporting machine gunners of the Camel Corps, the battalion seeking fuckbuddy all welcome manned somaali line approximately five eecort long following the curve of the Tug Argan, facing west and then south. The road to Laferug and Berbera crossed this part of the front over the tug and Observation Hill.
To the left eastbeyond the Rhodesians and their supporting machine gunners and artillerymen was another gap, murrieta escorts gfe a detachment of Indians on Soomali Ridge facing south, then another gap, and then half of 2nd KAR on Block Hill, also facing south, covering the trackless Mirgo Pass with the Berbera road running right across their rear.
Still farther to the British left east was yet another gap -- this one more than five miles wide -- between the KAR troops on Block Hill and their comrades, the other half of the battalion, hilo the outlying position on the far left eastern flank at Jerato Pass. Behind this curving defensive line was headquarters of the newly arrived Godwin-Austen with 2nd Black Watch in reserve near the abandoned airstrip close to Laferug. The British position at Tug Argan, although making best use of the hills, rough terrain, and the course of the chula vista hooker with herpes waterway, was much too long for the of troops available, without depth, and vulnerable castel infiltration.
Similarly, eecort the Gap itself was covered and there was no way to prevent the more numerous Italian forces from sending units around both flanks to envelop the entire defense. But at no other position in British Somaliland could the outed casyle hope to halt the Italian advance. The Italians, however, suffered from a disadvantage they did not immediately recognize. Their maps had been prepared based on inaccurate British charts lily minneapolis escort compiled in ; these failed to accurately show the path of the main road and the lay of the land around the defensive position.
This cartographic error would make it more difficult for De Simone to control his battle. His brigades began sonali at the British position on 10 August strung out along a single males escorts, gradually untangled themselves, and eventually deployed. Lorenzini's Chat for teen Brigade, brought up from reserve, took the Italian somall flank and began moving north to feel its way around the enemy positions.
Farther to the east, the converging body of Bertello's "right" column approached the outlying KAR position at Jerato Pass.
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